# Glossary of statistical terms

#### 0-9

Back to top#### A

- A Priori Probability
- A-B Test
- Acceptance Region
- Acceptance Sampling
- Acceptance Sampling Plans
- Additive effect
- Additive Error
- Agglomerative Methods (of Cluster Analysis)
- Aggregate Mean
- Alpha Level
- Alpha Spending Function
- Alternate-Form Reliability
- Alternative Hypothesis
- Analysis of Commonality
- Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
- Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
- ANCOVA
- ANOVA
- ARIMA
- Arithmetic Mean
- Association Rules
- Asymptotic Efficiency
- Asymptotic Property
- Asymptotic Relative Efficiency (of estimators)
- Asymptotically Unbiased Estimator
- Attribute
- Autocorrelation
- Autoregression
- Autoregression and Moving Average (ARMA) Models
- Autoregressive (AR) Models
- Average Deviation
- Average Group Linkage
- Average Linkage Clustering
- Azure ML

#### B

- Backward Elimination
- Bag-of-words
- Bagging
- Bandits
- Bayes´ Theorem
- Bernoulli Distribution
- Bernoulli Distribution (Graphical)
- Beta Distribution
- Beta Distribution (Graphical)
- Bias
- Biased Estimator
- Bimodal
- Binomial Distribution
- Bivariate Normal Distribution
- Bonferroni Adjustment
- Bonferroni Adjustment (Graphical)
- Boosting
- Bootstrapping
- Box Plot
- Box´s M
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#### C

- Calibration Sample
- Canonical Correlation Analysis
- Canonical Discriminant Analysis
- Canonical root
- Canonical variates analysis
- Categorical Data
- Categorical Data Analysis
- Causal analysis
- Causal modeling
- Census Survey
- Central Limit Theorem
- Central Location
- Central Tendency (Measures)
- Centroid
- CHAID
- Chebyshev´s Theorem
- Chernoff Faces
- Chi-Square Distribution
- Chi-Square Statistic
- Chi-Square Test
- Circular Icon Plots
- Classification and Regression Trees (CART)
- Classification Trees
- Cluster Analysis
- Clustered Sampling
- Cochran´s Q Statistic
- Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test
- Coefficient of Determination
- Coefficient of variation
- Cohen´s Kappa
- Cohort data
- Cohort study
- Cointegration
- Collaborative filtering
- Collinearity
- Column icon plots
- Comparison-wise Type I Error
- Complete Block Design
- Complete Linkage Clustering
- Complete Statistic
- Composite Hypothesis
- Concurrent Validity
- Conditional Probability
- Confidence Interval
- Consistent Estimator
- Construct Validity
- Content Validity
- Contingency Table
- Contingency Tables Analysis
- Continuous Distribution
- Continuous Random Variable
- Continuous Sample Space
- Continuous vs. Discrete Distributions
- Control Charts
- Convergent Validity
- Convolution of Distribution Functions
- Convolution of Distribution Functions (Graphical)
- Correlation Coefficient
- Correlation Matrix
- Correlation Statistic
- Correspondence analysis
- Correspondence Factor Analysis
- Correspondence mapping
- Correspondence Plot
- Countable Sample Space
- Covariance
- Covariate
- Cover time
- Cox Proportional Hazard
- Cox-Regression
- Cramer - Rao Inequality
- Criterion Validity
- Critical Region
- Cross sectional study
- Cross-sectional Analysis
- Cross-sectional Data
- Cross-tabulation Tables
- Cross-Validation
- Crossover Design
- Cumulative Frequency Distribution
- Cumulative Relative Frequency Distribution
- Curb-stoning
- Curse of Dimensionality

#### D

- Data
- Data Mining
- Data Partition
- Data Product
- Decile
- Decile Lift
- Decision Trees
- Degrees of Freedom
- Dendrogram
- Density (of Probability)
- Dependent and Independent Variables
- Dependent Events
- Descriptive Statistics
- Design of Experiments
- Detrended Correspondence Analysis
- Dichotomous
- Differencing (of Time Series)
- Directed vs. Undirected Network
- Discrete Distribution
- Discrete Random Variable
- Discriminant Analysis
- Discriminant Factor Analysis
- Discriminant Function
- Discriminant Function Analysis
- Dispersion (Measures of)
- Disproportionate Stratified Random Sampling
- Dissimilarity Matrix
- Distance
- Distance Matrix
- Divergent Validity
- Divisive Methods (of Cluster Analysis)
- Dual Scaling
- Dunn Test

#### E

- Econometrics
- Edge
- Effect
- Effect Size
- Efficiency
- Endogenous Variable
- Ensemble Methods
- Erlang Distribution
- Error
- Error Spending Function
- Estimation
- Estimator
- Event
- Exact Tests
- Exogenous Variable
- Expected Value
- Experiment
- Explanatory Variable
- Exponential Distribution
- Exponential Distribution (Graphical)
- Exponential Filter

#### F

- F Distribution
- F Distribution (Graphical)
- Face Validity
- Factor
- Factor Analysis
- Factorial ANOVA
- Fair Game
- False Discovery Rate
- Family-wise Type I Error
- Family-wise Type I Error (Graphical)
- Farthest Neighbor Clustering
- Feature
- Feature engineering
- Feature Selection
- Features vs. Variables
- Filter
- Finite Mixture Models
- Finite Sample Space
- Fisher´s Exact Test
- Fixed Effects
- Fixed Effects (Graphical)
- Fleming Procedure
- Forward Selection
- Fourier Spectrum
- Frequency Distribution
- Frequency Interpretation of Probability
- Functional Data Analysis (FDA)

#### G

- Gamma Distribution
- Gamma Distribution (Graphical)
- Gaussian Distribution
- Gaussian Filter
- General Association Statistic
- General Linear Model
- General Linear Model for a Latin Square
- General Linear Model for a Latin Square (Graphical)
- General linear models
- Generalized Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests
- Geometric Distribution
- Geometric Distribution (Graphical)
- Geometric mean
- Geometric Mean and Mean (comparison)
- Gini coefficient
- Gini coefficient (Graphical)
- Gini´s Mean Difference
- Goodness - of - Fit Test
- Granger Causation

#### H

- Hadoop
- Harmonic Mean
- Hazard Function
- Hazard Rate
- HDFS
- Heteroscedasticity
- Heteroscedasticity in hypothesis testing
- Heteroscedasticity in regression
- Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
- Hierarchical Linear Modeling
- Hierarchical Loglinear Models
- Histogram
- Hold-Out Sample
- Homoscedasticity
- Homoscedasticity in hypothesis testing
- Homoscedasticity in regression
- Hotelling Trace Coefficient
- Hotelling´s T-Square
- Hotelling-Lawley Trace
- Hypothesis
- Hypothesis Testing

#### I

- Icon Plots
- Image Processing
- Independent Events
- Independent Random Variables
- Independent Variable
- Indicator
- Inferential Statistics
- Input variable
- Interaction effect
- Interim Monitoring
- Internal Consistency Reliability
- Interobserver Reliability
- Interquartile Range
- Interval Scale
- Intraobserver Reliability

#### J

Back to top#### K

- k-Means Clustering
- k-Nearest neighbor
- k-Nearest Neighbors Classification
- k-Nearest Neighbors Prediction
- Kalman Filter
- Kalman Filter (Equations)
- Kaplan-Meier Estimator
- Kappa Statistic
- Kolmogorov-Smirnov One-sample Test
- Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
- Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two-sample Test
- Kruskal - Wallis Test
- Kurtosis

#### L

- Label
- Lan-Demets Spending Function
- Latent Class Analysis (LCA)
- Latent Class Cluster Analysis
- Latent Class Factor Analysis
- Latent Profile Analysis (LPA)
- Latent Structure Models
- Latent Trait Analysis (LTA)
- Latent Variable
- Latent Variable Growth Curve Models
- Latent Variable Models
- Latin Square
- Law Of Large Numbers
- Lawley-Hotelling Trace
- Least Squares Method
- Level of a Factor
- Level Of Significance
- Life Tables
- Likelihood Function
- Likelihood Function (Graphical)
- Likelihood Ratio Test
- Likelihood Ratio Test (Graphical)
- Likert Scales
- Lilliefors Statistic
- Lilliefors test for normality
- Line of Regression
- Linear Filter
- Linear Model
- Linear Model (Graphical)
- Linear Regression
- Linkage Function
- Local Independence
- Log-log Plot
- Log-Normal Distribution
- Logistic Regression
- Logistic Regression (Graphical)
- Logit
- Logit and Odds Ratio
- Logit and Probit Models
- Logit Models
- Loglinear models
- Loglinear regression
- Longitudinal Analysis
- Longitudinal Data
- Longitudinal study
- Loss Function

#### M

- Machine Learning
- MANCOVA
- Manifest Variable
- Mann - Whitney U Test
- MANOVA
- Mantel-Cox Test
- Mantel-Haenszel test
- MapReduce
- Margin of Error
- Marginal Density
- Marginal Distribution
- Markov Chain
- Markov Chain (Graphical)
- Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
- Markov Property
- Markov Property (Graphical)
- Markov Random Field
- Maximum Likelihood Estimator
- Maximum Likelihood Estimator (Graphical)
- Mean
- Mean Deviation
- Mean Score Statistic
- Mean Squared Error
- Mean Values (Comparison)
- Measurement Error
- Median
- Median Filter
- Meta-analysis
- Minimax Decision Rule
- Missing Data Imputation
- Mixed Models
- Mode
- Moment Generating Function
- Moments
- Monte Carlo Simulation
- Moving Average (MA) Models
- Multicollinearity
- Multidimensional Scaling
- Multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA)
- Multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA)
- Multiple Comparison
- Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA)
- Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA)
- Multiple Least Squares Regression
- Multiple looks
- Multiple Regression
- Multiple Regression (Graphical)
- Multiple Testing
- Multiplicative Error
- Multiplicity Issues
- Multivariate

#### N

- Naive bayes classifier
- Natural Language
- Nearest Neighbor Clustering
- Negative Binomial
- Netflix Prize
- Network Analytics
- Neural Network
- Node
- Noise
- Nominal Scale
- Non-parametric Regression
- Nonlinear Filter
- Nonparametric ANOVA Statistic
- Nonparametric Tests
- Nonrecursive Filter
- Nonstationary time series
- Normal Distribution
- Normality
- Normality Tests
- NoSQL
- Null Hypothesis

#### O

- Odds Ratio
- Odds Ratio (Graphical)
- Omega-square
- One-sided Test
- Order Statistics
- Ordered categorical data
- Ordinal Scale
- Ordinary Least Squares Regression
- Ordinary Linear Regression
- Orthogonal Least Squares
- Outcome variable
- Outlier
- Output variable

#### P

- p-value
- Paired Replicates Data
- Panel Data
- Panel study
- Parallel Design
- Parameter
- Parametric Tests
- Partial correlation analysis
- Path Analysis
- Path coefficients
- Pearson correlation coefficient
- Percentile
- Perceptual Mapping
- Permutation Tests
- Pie Icon Plots
- Pivotal Statistic
- Poisson Distribution
- Poisson Distribution (Graphical)
- Poisson Process
- Poisson Process (Graphical)
- Polygon Icon Plots
- Polynomial
- Population
- Post-hoc tests
- Posterior Probability
- Power Mean
- Power of a Hypothesis Test
- Power Spectrum
- Precision
- Predicting Filter
- Prediction vs. Explanation
- Predictive Modeling
- Predictive Validity
- predictor
- Predictor Variable
- Principal Component Analysis
- Principal components analysis
- Principal Components Analysis of Qualitative Data,
- Prior and posterior
- Prior and posterior probability (difference)
- Prior Probability
- Probit
- Probit Models
- Proportional Hazard Model
- Proportional Hazard Model (Graphical)
- Pruning the tree
- Pseudo-Random Numbers
- Psychological Testing
- Psychometrics

#### Q

Back to top#### R

- R-squared
- Random Effects
- Random Error
- Random Field
- Random Numbers
- Random Process
- Random Sampling
- Random Series
- Random Variable
- Random Walk
- Randomization Test
- Range
- Rank Correlation Coefficient
- Ratio Scale
- Reciprocal Averaging
- Rectangular Filter
- Recursive Filter
- Regression
- Regression Analysis
- Regression Trees
- Regularization
- Rejection Region
- Relative Efficiency (of tests)
- Relative Frequency Distribution
- Reliability
- Reliability (in Survey Analysis)
- Repeatability
- Repeated Measures Data
- Replicate
- Replication
- Reproducibility
- Resampling
- Residuals
- Resistance
- Response
- Response Variable
- RMS
- RMSE
- Robust Filter
- Robustness
- Root Mean Square
- Root Mean Square (Graphical)

#### S

- Sample
- Sample Size Calculations
- Sample Space
- Sample Survey
- Sampling
- Sampling Distribution
- Sampling Frame
- Scale Invariance (of Measures)
- Scatter Graphs
- Seasonal Adjustment
- Seasonal Decomposition
- Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR)
- Self-Controlled Design
- Sensitivity
- Sequential Analysis
- Sequential Icon Plots
- Serial Correlation
- Shift Invariance (of Measures)
- Sign Test
- Signal
- Signal Processing
- Significance Testing
- Similarity Matrix
- Simple Linear Regression
- Simple Linear Regression (Graphical)
- Simulation
- Single Linkage Clustering
- Singularity
- Six-Sigma
- Skewness
- Smoother (Example)
- Smoother (Smoothing Filter)
- Smoothing
- Social Network Analytics
- Social Space Analysis
- Spark
- Spatial Field
- Specificity
- Spectral Analysis
- Spectrum
- Spline
- Split-Halves Method
- SQL
- Standard Deviation
- Standard error
- Standard Normal Distribution
- Standard Score
- Standardized Mean Difference
- Stanine
- Star Icon Plots
- State Space
- Stationary time series
- Statistic
- Statistical Significance
- Statistical Test
- Statistics
- Stemming
- Step-wise Regression
- Stochastic Process
- Stratified Sampling
- Strip transect
- Structural Equation Modeling
- Structured vs. unstructured data
- Sufficient Statistic
- Sufficient Statistic (Graphical)
- Sun Ray Plots
- Support Vector Machines
- Survey
- Survival Analysis
- Survival Function
- Systematic Error
- Systematic Sampling

#### T

- t-distribution
- t-distribution (Graphical)
- t-statistic
- t-statistic (Graphical)
- t-test
- Target Variable
- Test Set
- Test-Retest Reliability
- The Tukey Mean-Difference Plot
- Time Series
- Time Series Analysis
- Time-series data
- Tokenization
- Training Set
- Transformation
- Triangular Filter
- Trimmed Mean
- Truncation
- Tukey´s HSD (Honestly Significant Differences) Test
- Two-Tailed Test
- Type I Error
- Type II Error

#### U

Back to top#### V

- Validation Sample
- Validation Set
- Validity
- Variable-Selection Procedures
- Variable-Selection Procedures (Graphical)
- Variables (in design of experiments)
- Variance
- Variance/Mean Ratio
- Variance/Mean Ratio Test
- Variate
- Vector Autoregressive Models
- Vector time series

#### W

- Ward´s Linkage
- Web Analytics
- Weighted Kappa
- Weighted Mean
- Weighted Mean (Calculation)
- White Hat Bias
- White Noise
- Wilcoxon - Mann - Whitney U Test
- Wilcoxon Rank Sums
- Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
- Wilks´s Lambda

#### Z

#### Suggestions and Additions

Back to Main Glossary

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