Glossary of statistical terms

Cross-sectional Data:

Cross-sectional data refer to observations of many different individuals (subjects, objects) at a given time, each observation belonging to a different individual. A simple example of cross-sectional data is the gross annual income for each of 1000 randomly chosen households in New York City for the year 2000. Cross-sectional data are distinguished from longitudinal data, where there are multiple observations for each unit, over time.

Browse Other Glossary Entries

Want to learn more about this topic? offers over 100 courses in statistics from introductory to advanced level. Most are 4 weeks long and take place online in series of weekly lessons and assignments, requiring about 15 hours/week. Participate at your convenience; there are no set times when you must to be online. Ask questions and exchange comments with the instructor and other students on a private discussion board throughout the course.

Designing Valid Statistical Studies

This course covers the issues you need to address in designing studies to produce statistically valid conclusions.  Topics covered in the course include: overview of validity and bias, selection bias, information bias, and confounding bias.

Epidemiologic Statistics

This is an introductory epidemiology course that emphasizes the underlying concepts and methods of epidemiologic statistics - study designs, and measures of disease frequency and treatment effect.

Modeling Longitudinal and Panel Data

This course covers the extension of Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to model varieties of longitudinal and clustered data, called panel data.

Back to Main Glossary

Promoting better understanding of statistics throughout the world

To celebrate the International Year of Statistics in 2013, we will provide a statistical term every week, delivered directly to your inbox. The Institute for Statistics Education offers an extensive glossary of statistical terms, available to all for reference and research. Make it your New Year's resolution to improve your own statistical knowledge! Sign up here. Rather not have more email? Simply bookmark our home page and check our “Stats Word of the Week” feature.
Want to be
notified of future
course offerings?
Please enter first name.
Please enter last name.
Please enter valid E-mail.
© 2004-2014