An estimator is a measure or metric intended to be calculated from a sample drawn from a larger population...
The centroid is a measure of center in multi-dimensional space.
A Binomial distribution is used to describe an experiment, event, or process for which the probability of success is the same for each trial and each trial has only two possible outcomes.
A combination of treatment comparisons (e.g. send a sales solicitation, or send nothing) and predictive modeling to determine which cases or subjects respond (e.g. purchase or not) to which treatments.