Benford's law describes an expected distribution of the first digit in many naturally-occurring datasets.
Contingency tables are tables of counts of events or things, cross-tabulated by row and column.
Hyperparameter is used in machine learning, where it refers, loosely speaking, to user-set parameters, and in Bayesian statistics, to refer to parameters of the prior distribution.
Why sample? A while ago, sample would not have been a candidate for Word of the Week, its meaning being pretty obvious to anyone with a passing acquaintance with statistics. I select it today because of some output I saw from a decision tree in Python.