Survival analysis is concerned with "time-to-event" data. In medical statistics, the data are often in the form of "time-to-death". In the analysis of production or industrial data, "time-to-failure" is a typical application. However, the event of interest need not either be failure or death - for example, one could analyse "time-to-closure" for customer account data.
See also: Life tables, Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Hazard Function, Survival Function